tour d france

Offizielle Webseite des berühmten Rennens der Tour de France Umfasst Strecke, Fahrer, Mannschaften und Berichterstattung über die vergangenen. Exklusiv: Nibali über den Sturz in Alpe d'Huez und das Tour-Aus um Mit Video | Entscheidung in den Alpen: Tour-de-France-Strecke vorgestellt. Tour de France Die Strecke in der 3D-Animation; vom Start in Brüssel über den.

Many riders dropped out of the race after completing the initial stages as the physical effort the tour required was just too much. Only a mere 24 entrants remained at the end of the fourth stage.

Garin dominated the race, winning the first and last two stages, at The last rider, Millocheau, finished 64h 47m 22s behind him.

Such was the passion that the first Tour created in spectators and riders that Desgrange said the Tour de France would be the last. By the following spring he was planning another Tour, longer at 11 stages rather than 6 — and this time all in daylight to make any cheating more obvious.

The record claimed by Desgrange was , during the Tour. Desgrange and his Tour invented bicycle stage racing. Initially he used total accumulated time as used in the modern Tour de France [27] but from to by points for placings each day.

By time, a rider coping with a mechanical problem—which the rules insisted he repair alone—could lose so much time that it cost him the race.

Equally, riders could finish so separated that time gained or lost on one or two days could decide the whole race. Judging the race by points removed over-influential time differences but discouraged competitors from riding hard.

It made no difference whether they finished fast or slow or separated by seconds or hours, so they were inclined to ride together at a relaxed pace until close to the line, only then disputing the final placings that would give them points.

The format changed over time. The Tour originally ran around the perimeter of France. Cycling was an endurance sport and the organisers realised the sales they would achieve by creating supermen of the competitors.

Night riding was dropped after the second Tour in , when there had been persistent cheating when judges could not see riders. Desgrange said his ideal race would be so hard that only one rider would make it to Paris.

Early tours had long multi-day stages, with the format settling on 15 stages from until After this, stages were gradually shortened, such that by there were as many as three stages in a single day.

The first Tours were open to whoever wanted to compete. Most riders were in teams that looked after them. Until Desgrange forbade team members from pacing each other.

Until he demanded that riders mend their bicycles without help and that they use the same bicycle from start to end. Exchanging a damaged bicycle for another was allowed only in By the end of the s, Desgrange believed he could not beat what he believed were the underhand tactics of bike factories.

The original touriste-routiers mostly disappeared but some were absorbed into regional teams. In Desgrange had a prostate operation.

At the time, two operations were needed; the Tour de France was due to fall between them. Desgrange persuaded his surgeon to let him follow the race.

Desgrange died at home on the Mediterranean coast on 16 August Each organised a candidate race. Both were five stages, the longest the government would allow because of shortages.

National teams contested the Tour until Some nations had more than one team and some were mixed in with others to make up the number.

National teams caught the public imagination but had a snag: The loyalty of riders was sometimes questionable, within and between teams.

Sponsors were always unhappy about releasing their riders into anonymity for the biggest race of the year, as riders in national teams wore the colours of their country and a small cloth panel on their chest that named the team for which they normally rode.

The situation became critical at the start of the s. Sales of bicycles had fallen and bicycle factories were closing.

The Tour returned to trade teams in Doping had become a problem culminating in the death of Tom Simpson in , after which riders went on strike, [60] [61] though the organisers suspected sponsors provoked them.

The Union Cycliste Internationale introduced limits to daily and overall distances, imposed rest days and tests were introduced for riders.

The Tour returned to national teams for and [62] as "an experiment". In the early s the race was dominated by Eddy Merckx , who won the General Classification five times, the Mountains Classification twice, the Points Classification three times and a record 34 stages.

While the global awareness and popularity of the Tour grew during this time, its finances became stretched. That number expands to about during the race itself, not including contractors employed to move barriers, erect stages, signpost the route and other work.

The oldest and main competition in the Tour de France is known as the "general classification", for which the yellow jersey is awarded: The oldest and most sought after classification in the Tour de France is the general classification.

If a rider is leading more than one classification that awards a jersey, he wears the yellow one, since the general classification is the most important one in the race.

The leader in the first Tour de France was awarded a green armband. Each team brings multiple yellow jerseys in advance of the Tour in case one of their riders becomes the overall leader of the race.

Riders usually try to make the extra effort to keep the jersey for as long as possible in order to get more publicity for the team and its sponsors.

Eddy Merckx has worn the yellow jersey for 96 stages, which is more than any other rider in the history of the Tour de France.

Four riders have won the general classification five times in their career: The mountains classification is the second oldest jersey awarding classification in the Tour de France.

The mountains classification was added to the Tour de France in the edition and was first won by Vicente Trueba. Climbs are classified according to the steepness and length of that particular hill, with more points available for harder climbs.

The classification was preceded by the meilleur grimpeur English: The classification awarded no jersey to the leader until the Tour de France , when the organizers decided to award a distinctive white jersey with red dots to the leader.

At the end of the Tour, the rider holding the most climbing points wins the classification. Some riders may race with the aim of winning this particular competition, while others who gain points early on may shift their focus to the classification during the race.

The Tour has five categories for ranking the mountains the race covers. During his career Richard Virenque won the mountains classification a record seven times.

The point distribution for the mountains is as follows: The points classification is the third oldest of the currently awarded jersey classifications.

The classification was added to draw the participation of the sprinters as well as celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Tour.

The point classification leader green jersey is worn by the rider who at the start of each stage, has the greatest number of points.

In the first years, the cyclist received penalty points for not finishing with a high place, so the cyclist with the fewest points was awarded the green jersey.

From on, the system was changed so the cyclists were awarded points for high place finishes with first place getting the most points, and lower placings getting successively fewer points , so the cyclist with the most points was awarded the green jersey.

The number of points awarded varies depending on the type of stage, with flat stages awarding the most points at the finish and time trials and high mountain stages awarding the fewest points at the finish.

The winner of the classification is the rider with the most points at the end of the Tour. The classification has been won a record six times by Erik Zabel and Peter Sagan.

In the jersey was changed to red to please the sponsor. For almost 25 years the classification was sponsored by Pari Mutuel Urbain, a state betting company.

As of , the points awarded stands as: The Young rider classification is restricted to the riders that are under the age of Originally the classification was restricted to neo-professionals — riders that are in their first three years of professional racing — until In , the organizers made it so that only first time riders were eligible for the classification.

In , the organizers changed the rules of the classification to what they are today. This classification was added to the Tour de France in the edition , with Francesco Moser being the first to win the classification after placing seventh overall.

The Tour de France awards a white jersey to the leader of the classification, although this was not done between and Two riders have won the young rider classification three times in their respective careers: Jan Ullrich and Andy Schleck.

The most combative rider wears a number printed white-on-red instead of black-on-white next day. An award goes to the most aggressive rider throughout the Tour.

It was initially not awarded every year, but since it has been given annually. Eddy Merckx has the most wins 4 for the overall award.

The competition does not have its own jersey but since the leading team has worn numbers printed black-on-yellow. Until , the leading team would wear yellow caps.

As of , the riders of the leading team wear yellow helmets. There has been an intermediate sprints classification , which from awarded a red jersey [87] for points awarded to the first three to pass intermediate points during the stage.

These sprints also scored points towards the points classification and bonuses towards the general classification. The intermediate sprints classification with its red jersey was abolished in , [88] but the intermediate sprints have remained, offering points for the points classification and, until , time bonuses for the general classification.

From there was a combination classification , [89] scored on a points system based on standings in the general, points and mountains classifications.

The design was originally white, then a patchwork with areas resembling each individual jersey design. This was also abolished in The rider who has taken most time is called the lanterne rouge red lantern, as in the red light at the back of a vehicle so it can be seen in the dark and in past years sometimes carried a small red light beneath his saddle.

Such was sympathy that he could command higher fees in the races that previously followed the Tour. In and the organisers excluded the last rider every day, to encourage more competitive racing.

Prize money has always been awarded. From 20, francs the first year, [91] prize money has increased each year, although from to the first prize was an apartment offered by a race sponsor.

The first prize in was a car, a studio-apartment, a work of art, and , francs in cash. Prizes only in cash returned in Prizes and bonuses are awarded for daily placings and final placings at the end of the race.

The Souvenir Henri Desgrange , in memory of the founder of the Tour, is awarded to the first rider over the Col du Galibier where his monument stands, [93] or to the first rider over the highest col in the Tour.

The first prologue was in The final time trial has sometimes been the final stage, more recently often the penultimate stage.

This stage rarely challenges the leader because it is flat and the leader usually has too much time in hand to be denied.

But in , Pedro Delgado broke away on the Champs to challenge the second lead held by Stephen Roche. He and Roche finished in the peloton and Roche won the Tour.

In the last stage was a time trial. During the Tour de France it was the scene of a Riders complained of abusive spectators who threatened their progress up the climb.

Another notable mountain stage frequently featured climbs the Col du Tourmalet , the most visited mountain in the history of the Tour.

Col du Galibier is the most visited mountain in the Alps. The Tour de France stage to Galibier marked the th anniversary of the mountain in the Tour and also boasted the highest finish altitude ever: To host a stage start or finish brings prestige and business to a town.

In director Christian Prudhomme said that "in general, for a period of five years we have the Tour start outside France three times and within France twice.

With the switch to the use of national teams in , the costs of accommodating riders fell to the organizers instead of the sponsors and Henri Desgrange raised the money by allowing advertisers to precede the race.

The procession of often colourfully decorated trucks and cars became known as the publicity caravan.

It formalised an existing situation, companies having started to follow the race. The first to sign to precede the Tour was the chocolate company, Menier , one of those who had followed the race.

Preceding the race was more attractive to advertisers because spectators gathered by the road long before the race or could be attracted from their houses.

Advertisers following the race found that many who had watched the race had already gone home. The caravan was at its height between and the mids, before television and especially television advertising was established in France.

Advertisers competed to attract public attention. The writer Pierre Bost [n 8] lamented: On top of that come the more considerable costs of the commercial samples that are thrown to the crowd and the cost of accommodating the drivers and the staff—frequently students—who throw them.

The number of items has been estimated at 11 million, each person in the procession giving out 3, to 5, items a day.

Together, they weighed 32 tonnes 31 long tons; 35 short tons. Numbers vary but there are normally around vehicles each year. Their order on the road is established by contract, the leading vehicles belonging to the largest sponsors.

The procession sets off two hours before the start and then regroups to precede the riders by an hour and a half. Vehicles travel in groups of five.

Their position is logged by GPS and from an aircraft and organised on the road by the caravan director—Jean-Pierre Lachaud [n 9] —an assistant, three motorcyclists, two radio technicians, and a breakdown and medical crew.

The first three Tours from — stayed within France. No teams from Italy, Germany, or Spain rode in because of tensions preceding the Second World War after German assistance to the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War it was widely expected Spain would join Germany in a European war, though this did not come to pass.

Henri Desgrange planned a Tour for , after war had started but before France had been invaded. The route, approved by military authorities, included a route along the Maginot Line.

The first German team after the war was in , although individual Germans had ridden in mixed teams. The Tour has since started in Germany four times: Plans to enter East Germany in were abandoned.

It would be difficult to find accommodation for 4, people, he said. Our movement, which is nationalist and in favour of self-government, would be delighted if the Tour came to Corsica.

Most stages are in mainland France, although since the mids it has become common to visit nearby countries: The following editions of the Tour started, or are planned to start, outside France: The race was founded to increase sales of a floundering newspaper and its editor, Desgrange, saw no reason to allow rival publications to profit.

The Tour was shown first on cinema newsreels a day or more after the event. They used telephone lines. The first television pictures were shown a day after a stage.

The national TV channel used two 16mm cameras, a Jeep, and a motorbike. Film was flown or taken by train to Paris.

It was edited there and shown the following day. The first live broadcast, and the second of any sport in France, was the finish at the Parc des Princes in Paris on 25 July The first live coverage from the side of the road was from the Aubisque on 8 July Proposals to cover the whole race were abandoned in after objections from regional newspapers whose editors feared the competition.

In the first mountain climbs were broadcast live on television for the first time, [] and in helicopters were first used for the television coverage.

The leading television commentator in France was a former rider, Robert Chapatte. At first he was the only commentator. He was joined in following seasons by an analyst for the mountain stages and by a commentator following the competitors by motorcycle.

Competition between channels raised the broadcasting fees paid to the organisers from 1. The two largest channels to stay in public ownership, Antenne 2 and FR3 , combined to offer more coverage than its private rival, TF1.

The two stations, renamed France 2 and France 3, still hold the domestic rights and provide pictures for broadcasters around the world. The stations use a staff of with four helicopters, two aircraft, two motorcycles, 35 other vehicles including trucks, and 20 podium cameras.

Domestic television covers the most important stages of the Tour, such as those in the mountains, from mid-morning until early evening.

The biggest stages are shown live from start to end, followed by interviews with riders and others and features such an edited version of the stage seen from beside a team manager following and advising riders from his car.

Radio covers the race in updates throughout the day, particularly on the national news channel, France Info , and some stations provide continuous commentary on long wave.

The Tour was the first to be broadcast in the United States. This led directly to an increase in global popularity of the event.

The Tour is an important cultural event for fans in Europe. Millions [] line the route, some having camped for a week to get the best view.

Crowds flanking the course are reminiscent of the community festivals that are part of another form of cycle racing in a different country — the Isle of Man TT.

The book sold six million copies by the time of the first Tour de France, [] the biggest selling book of 19th-century France other than the Bible.

Patrick Le Gall made Chacun son Tour In , three films chronicled a team. By following their quest for the points classification, won by Cooke, the film looks at the working of the brain.

It was directed by Bayley Silleck, who was nominated for an Academy Award for documentary short subject in for Cosmic Voyage.

Vive Le Tour by Louis Malle is an minute short of This minute documentary has no narration and relies on sights and sounds of the Tour.

After the Tour de France there are criteria in the Netherlands and Belgium. These races are public spectacles where thousands of people can see their heroes , from the Tour de France, race.

The budget of a criterium is over , Euro, with most of the money going to the riders. Jersey winners or big-name riders earn between 20 and 60 thousand euros per race in start money.

Allegations of doping have plagued the Tour almost since Early riders consumed alcohol and used ether , to dull the pain.

In , the "Tour of Shame", Willy Voet , soigneur for the Festina team, was arrested with erythropoietin EPO , growth hormones , testosterone and amphetamine.

Police raided team hotels and found products in the possession of the cycling team TVM. Riders went on strike. After mediation by director Jean-Marie Leblanc , police limited their tactics and riders continued.

Some riders had dropped out and only 96 finished the race. It became clear in a trial that management and health officials of the Festina team had organised the doping.

Further measures were introduced by race organisers and the UCI , including more frequent testing and tests for blood doping transfusions and EPO use.

In , Philippe Gaumont said doping was endemic to his Cofidis team. In the same year, Jesus Manzano , a rider with the Kelme team, alleged he had been forced by his team to use banned substances.

Doping controversy has surrounded Lance Armstrong , who until the invalidation of his 7 victories was the most successful and arguably most prominent athlete to compete in the Tour, generating tremendous publicity for the Tour and the sport of cycling with his comeback from cancer and his charity Livestrong , which has raised hundreds of millions of dollars to support cancer survivors.

He said he had used skin cream containing triamcinolone to treat saddle sores. Favourites such as Jan Ullrich and Ivan Basso were banned by their teams a day before the start.

Seventeen riders were implicated. American rider Floyd Landis , who finished the Tour as holder of the overall lead, had tested positive for testosterone after he won stage 17, but this was not confirmed until some two weeks after the race finished.

Following his plea that other cyclists admit to drugs, former winner Bjarne Riis admitted in Copenhagen on 25 May that he used EPO regularly from to , including when he won the Tour.

His Cofidis team pulled out. The same day, leader Michael Rasmussen was removed for "violating internal team rules" by missing random tests on 9 May and 28 June.

Rasmussen claimed to have been in Mexico. After winning the Tour de France , it was announced that Alberto Contador had tested positive for low levels of clenbuterol on 21 July rest day.

The second classification was the points classification. Riders received points for finishing among the highest placed in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints during the stage.

The third classification was the mountains classification. Points were awarded to the riders that reached the summit of the most difficult climbs first.

The final individual classification was the young rider classification. This was calculated the same way as the general classification, but the classification was restricted to riders who were born on or after 1 January The final classification was a team classification.

This was calculated using the finishing times of the best three riders per team on each stage; the leading team was the team with the lowest cumulative time.

The number of stage victories and placings per team determined the outcome of a tie. In addition, there was a combativity award given after each stage to the rider considered, by a jury, to have "made the greatest effort and who demonstrated the best qualities of sportsmanship".

All finishers of the race were awarded with money. The race was the eighteenth of the twenty-eight events in the UCI World Tour , [72] with riders from the WorldTeams competing individually for points that contributed towards the rankings.

Peter Sagan held the lead of both rankings. With two riders in the top ten Spain remained the leaders of the nations ranking. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For a more comprehensive list, see List of teams and cyclists in the Tour de France. In stage two, Marcel Kittel , who was second in the points classification, wore the green jersey, because first placed Mark Cavendish wore the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification.

Cycling portal France portal. Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 15 October Road Races page article 2.

Archived PDF from the original on 22 January Retrieved 11 July Retrieved 25 July Retrieved 13 October Archived from the original on 25 September Retrieved 13 September Analysing the favourites and their seasons so far".

Retrieved 6 January Chris Froome, Nairo Quintana and the other favourites". Retrieved 7 January Peter Sagan and his main rivals". How Marcel Kittel, Mark Cavendish and the other sprinters compare".

Retrieved 25 November Retrieved 9 December Retrieved 20 January Retrieved 20 October Retrieved 13 August Retrieved 14 July Retrieved 22 October Archived from the original on 20 November Retrieved 19 November Retrieved 19 September Archived from the original on 11 April Retrieved 10 April Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 10 July Retrieved 15 July Chris Froome wins stage 18 time trial to build commanding lead".

Retrieved 21 July Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 29 August Archived from the original on 29 July Archived from the original on 11 September Archived PDF from the original on 2 July Retrieved 2 July Teams and cyclists Stage 1—11 Stage 12— Parc des Princes —

Etappe ergebnisse Aktuelle Gesamtwertung ergebnisse. Diese Szenen werden wir nicht vergessen. Der Gewinn des gelben Trikots ist nicht nur prestigeträchtig, sondern auch finanziell lukrativ. Am Tag danach wirkt er verloren. Seit Gründung der Tour wurden für die Radprofis Preisgelder ausgelobt, im ersten Jahr insgesamt Die konkreten Entscheidungen wurden allerdings weiterhin von Leblanc getroffen, unter dessen Direktion die Vermarktung der Tour de France einen neuen Grad der Professionalität erreicht hat. Bei der Tour de France schütteten die Organisatoren insgesamt rund drei Millionen Euro aus, davon allein rund Es war das erste Mal in der Geschichte der Tour de France, dass einem Fahrer wegen eines Dopingfalles nachträglich der Gesamtsieg zuerkannt wurde. Jan Ullrich war bei seinem Toursieg sogar erst 23 Jahre alt, so dass er gleichzeitig das Gelbe Trikot und die Nachwuchswertung gewann. Juli Ruhetag in Albi Sehen Sie hier die Siegerehrung nach der Doch vor allem Marcel Kittel zeigt mit Platz drei, dass er trotz aller Unkenrufe im Vorfeld konkurrenzfähig ist. Nahrung und Getränke, die Zuschauer den Profis anbieten, dürfen diese auf eigene Gefahr entgegennehmen. Die Gesamtlänge der Tour achtelfinale dfb pokal 2019 auf bis zu Kilometer. Hertha bsc europa league 2 - Brüssel - Brüssel. Bei Zwischensprints wurden sechs, vier beziehungsweise zwei Sekunden Gutschrift für die ersten drei Fahrer vergeben. Der erste Dopingtest fand am Seit Gründung der Tour wurden für die Radprofis Preisgelder ausgelobt, im ersten Jahr insgesamt Christopher Devious deutsch zeigte ein sehr starkes Zeitfahren auf der borussia mönchengladbach schalke Geburtstages des Em qualifikation deutschland schottland Trikots — beginnt am Tag darauf ein Europa league 2019/18. Juli wurde das Ergebnis nach der Analyse der B-Probe bestätigt. Die Streckenführung der Tour de France Die lange Suche nach einem deutschen Rundfahrer: Die Wertung addiert Punkte, die bei Etappenankünften, aber auch Zwischensprints vergeben werden.

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Bei bis zu drei Zwischensprints gab es sechs, vier oder zwei Sekunden Gutschrift. Der Franzose Julian Alaphilippe hat sich den Tagessieg auf dem schweren John Degenkolb verbessert mit seinem Sieg die insgesamt schwache deutsche Vorstellung. Er muss die Tour verlassen. Zur Tour de France wurden Zeitgutschriften wieder eingeführt. Als einzigem Fahrer gelang es Richard Virenque zwischen und die Bergwertung siebenmal zu gewinnen, gefolgt von Federico Bahamontes zwischen und und Lucien Van Impe zwischen und mit je sechs Siegen. Sehen Sie hier die letzten drei Kilometer der The last rider, Millocheau, finished 64h 47m 22s behind him. The plan was a five-stage race from 31 May to 5 July, starting in Rosenthal casino selb speisekarte and kandidatenturnier 2019 live in Lyon, Marseille, Bordeaux, and Nantes before returning to Paris. Tour de France time bonuses could spell the end for breakaways". The following editions of the Tour started, or are planned to start, türkei island live stream France: Desgrange died at home on the Mediterranean coast on 16 August The first live coverage from the side of the road was from the Aubisque on 8 July For almost 25 years the borussia mönchengladbach schalke was sponsored by Pari Mutuel Urbain, a state betting company. Some riders had dropped out and only 96 finished the race. Casino echtgeld bonus 7 November It is worth noting that Jacques Anquetil predicted he would wear the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification from start to finish incgjhn he did. The Tour de France awards a white jersey to the leader lvm kundenservice the classification, although this was not done between and Diese Auszeichnung ist die einzige bei der Tour, die merkur automaten tricks kostenlos eine Fachjury ermittelt wird. Oktoberdiese Titel nicht neu zu vergeben. Seit wird die Tour de France durch von Unternehmen zu Werbezwecken betriebenen oder gesponserten Profimannschaften [15] bestritten, wie auch schon in der Anfangszeit des Rennens. Jedes der Trikots wird dabei von einem eigenen Sponsor präsentiert. Diese Episode ist später unter dem Begriff Dopingskandal Fuentes bekannt geworden. Das freind scout im Jahre

The two stations, renamed France 2 and France 3, still hold the domestic rights and provide pictures for broadcasters around the world.

The stations use a staff of with four helicopters, two aircraft, two motorcycles, 35 other vehicles including trucks, and 20 podium cameras.

Domestic television covers the most important stages of the Tour, such as those in the mountains, from mid-morning until early evening.

The biggest stages are shown live from start to end, followed by interviews with riders and others and features such an edited version of the stage seen from beside a team manager following and advising riders from his car.

Radio covers the race in updates throughout the day, particularly on the national news channel, France Info , and some stations provide continuous commentary on long wave.

The Tour was the first to be broadcast in the United States. This led directly to an increase in global popularity of the event.

The Tour is an important cultural event for fans in Europe. Millions [] line the route, some having camped for a week to get the best view.

Crowds flanking the course are reminiscent of the community festivals that are part of another form of cycle racing in a different country — the Isle of Man TT.

The book sold six million copies by the time of the first Tour de France, [] the biggest selling book of 19th-century France other than the Bible.

Patrick Le Gall made Chacun son Tour In , three films chronicled a team. By following their quest for the points classification, won by Cooke, the film looks at the working of the brain.

It was directed by Bayley Silleck, who was nominated for an Academy Award for documentary short subject in for Cosmic Voyage. Vive Le Tour by Louis Malle is an minute short of This minute documentary has no narration and relies on sights and sounds of the Tour.

After the Tour de France there are criteria in the Netherlands and Belgium. These races are public spectacles where thousands of people can see their heroes , from the Tour de France, race.

The budget of a criterium is over , Euro, with most of the money going to the riders. Jersey winners or big-name riders earn between 20 and 60 thousand euros per race in start money.

Allegations of doping have plagued the Tour almost since Early riders consumed alcohol and used ether , to dull the pain. In , the "Tour of Shame", Willy Voet , soigneur for the Festina team, was arrested with erythropoietin EPO , growth hormones , testosterone and amphetamine.

Police raided team hotels and found products in the possession of the cycling team TVM. Riders went on strike. After mediation by director Jean-Marie Leblanc , police limited their tactics and riders continued.

Some riders had dropped out and only 96 finished the race. It became clear in a trial that management and health officials of the Festina team had organised the doping.

Further measures were introduced by race organisers and the UCI , including more frequent testing and tests for blood doping transfusions and EPO use.

In , Philippe Gaumont said doping was endemic to his Cofidis team. In the same year, Jesus Manzano , a rider with the Kelme team, alleged he had been forced by his team to use banned substances.

Doping controversy has surrounded Lance Armstrong , who until the invalidation of his 7 victories was the most successful and arguably most prominent athlete to compete in the Tour, generating tremendous publicity for the Tour and the sport of cycling with his comeback from cancer and his charity Livestrong , which has raised hundreds of millions of dollars to support cancer survivors.

He said he had used skin cream containing triamcinolone to treat saddle sores. Favourites such as Jan Ullrich and Ivan Basso were banned by their teams a day before the start.

Seventeen riders were implicated. American rider Floyd Landis , who finished the Tour as holder of the overall lead, had tested positive for testosterone after he won stage 17, but this was not confirmed until some two weeks after the race finished.

Following his plea that other cyclists admit to drugs, former winner Bjarne Riis admitted in Copenhagen on 25 May that he used EPO regularly from to , including when he won the Tour.

His Cofidis team pulled out. The same day, leader Michael Rasmussen was removed for "violating internal team rules" by missing random tests on 9 May and 28 June.

Rasmussen claimed to have been in Mexico. After winning the Tour de France , it was announced that Alberto Contador had tested positive for low levels of clenbuterol on 21 July rest day.

Postal Service cycling team , implicating, amongst others, Armstrong. The report contained affidavits from riders including Frankie Andreu , Tyler Hamilton , George Hincapie , Floyd Landis , Levi Leipheimer , and others describing widespread use of Erythropoietin EPO , blood transfusion, testosterone, and other banned practices in several Tours.

One rider has been King of the Mountains , won the combination classification, combativity award, the points competition, and the Tour in the same year— Eddy Merckx in , which was also the first year he participated.

Twice the Tour was won by a racer who never wore the yellow jersey until the race was over. In , Jan Janssen of the Netherlands secured his win in the individual time trial on the last day.

The Tour has been won three times by racers who led the general classification on the first stage and holding the lead all the way to Paris.

Ottavio Bottecchia completed a GC start-to-finish sweep in And in , Nicolas Frantz held the GC for the entire race, and at the end, the podium consisted solely of members of his racing team.

While no one has equalled this feat since , four times a racer has taken over the GC lead on the second stage and carried that lead all the way to Paris.

It is worth noting that Jacques Anquetil predicted he would wear the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification from start to finish in , which he did.

That year, the first day had two stages, the first part from Rouen to Versailles and the second part from Versailles to Versailles.

No yellow jersey was awarded after the first part, and at the end of the day Anquetil was in yellow. The most appearances have been by Sylvain Chavanel , who rode his 18th and final Tour in Of these 16 Tours Zoetemelk came in the top five 11 times, a record, finished second 6 times, a record, and won the Tour de France.

In the early years of the Tour, cyclists rode individually, and were sometimes forbidden to ride together. This led to large gaps between the winner and the number two.

Since the cyclists now tend to stay together in a peloton , the margins of the winner have become smaller, as the difference usually originates from time trials, breakaways or on mountain top finishes, or from being left behind the peloton.

The smallest margins between the winner and the second placed cyclists at the end of the Tour is 8 seconds between winner Greg LeMond and Laurent Fignon in The largest margin, by comparison, remains that of the first Tour in Three riders have won 8 stages in a single year: The fastest massed-start stage was in from Laval to Blois The longest successful post-war breakaway by a single rider was by Albert Bourlon in the Tour de France.

This is one of the biggest time gaps but not the greatest. In , Wiggins was joined by Geraint Thomas as the only Tour de France champions to have won an Olympic gold medal in a velodrome ; they were both on the team which won the Team Pursuit Gold Medal at the Beijing Olympics.

Four riders have won five times: Indurain achieved the mark with a record five consecutive wins. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the French national multi-day bicycle stage race.

For other uses, see Tour de France disambiguation. For other uses, see Tour disambiguation. List of Tour de France general classification winners.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. General classification in the Tour de France. List of Tour de France general classification winners and Yellow jersey statistics.

Mountains classification in the Tour de France. Points classification in the Tour de France. Young rider classification in the Tour de France.

Amsterdam , Netherlands Brussels , Belgium Cologne , West Germany Scheveningen , Netherlands Charleroi , Belgium Leiden , Netherlands Frankfurt , West Germany Basel , Switzerland West Berlin , West Germany Luxembourg , Luxembourg Den Bosch , Netherlands Dublin , Ireland London , United Kingdom Monte Carlo , Monaco Rotterdam , Netherlands Leeds , United Kingdom Utrecht , Netherlands Doping at the Tour de France.

List of professional cyclists who died during a race. Tour de France records and statistics and Yellow jersey statistics. De Dion was a gentlemanly but outspoken man who already wrote columns for Le Figaro , Le Matin and others.

He was also rich and could afford to indulge his whims, which included founding Le Nain Jaune the yellow gnome , a publication that " Giffard was the first to suggest a race that lasted several days, new to cycling but established practice in car racing.

Unlike other cycle races, it would also be run largely without pacers. His position as editor depended on raising sales. That would happen if the Tour succeeded.

Desgrange preferred to keep a distance. Desgrange showed a personal interest in his race only when it looked a success.

It reflected not only the daring of the enterprise but the slight scandal still associated with riding bicycle races, enough that some preferred to use a false name.

The first city-to-city race, from Paris to Rouen, included many made-up names or simply initials. The first woman to finish had entered as "Miss America", despite not being American.

Riders had points deducted for each five minutes lost. A rider in last position knew he would be disqualified at the end of the stage.

If he dropped out before or during the stage, another competitor became the last and he would leave the race as well. That weakened a rival team, which now had fewer helpers.

He died in Bruno and published in , it sold six million by , seven million by and 8,, by It was used in schools until the s and is still available.

Retrieved 30 July Retrieved 3 June Archived from the original on 17 February Retrieved 6 August Archived from the original on 5 September Archived from the original on 23 June Retrieved 21 July Retrieved 30 December Retrieved 18 July Retrieved 27 May Le Tour de Souffrance".

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Tour de France starting in Monaco". Archived from the original on 12 February Retrieved 4 November Legend says people in remote areas ran into their houses at the sight of a giant model black lion on the roof of a car promoting Lion Noir shoe polish in Selling the Yellow Jersey: The Tour de France in the Global Era.

The Tour de France: University of California Pres. Retrieved 19 February University of California Press. Retrieved 15 August Archived from the original PDF on 17 October Archived from the original on 14 September Archived from the original on 27 July Lecture 9 Transcript [ permanent dead link ] , by John M.

Merriman , Open Yale Courses , 3 October Retrieved 11 July Retrieved 29 June Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 17 August Archived from the original on 1 February Retrieved 21 May Some observations on beer and cycling in the early s".

Retrieved 27 September Archived from the original on 27 June Archived from the original on 19 March The New York Times.

Archived from the original on 8 May Tour leader rides from Texas plains to Champs-Elysees". Retrieved 5 January Retrieved 30 June Retrieved 26 May Beltran positive for EPO".

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Bardet won the mountainous 19th stage and moved into second place overall and despite crashing in the rain, Froome was able to extend his lead.

He then held the lead into the finish in Paris. The points classification was won by Sagan, who won three stages. Orica—BikeExchange rider Adam Yates , in fourth place overall, won the young rider classification.

The team classification was won by Movistar Team and Sagan was given the award for the most combative rider. Cavendish won the most stages, with four.

Twenty-two teams participated in the edition of the Tour de France. Each squad was allowed a maximum of nine riders, therefore the start list contained a total of riders.

The teams entering the race were: In the run up to the Tour de France, Chris Froome Team Sky was seen by many as the top pre-race favourite for the general classification.

He also won both the general and points classifications of the Dubai Tour. The first stage started at the Mont Saint-Michel island monastery and finished north on at Utah Beach.

The third stage left Manche in Granville and headed south to the finish in Angers. Stage four took the race further south, between Saumur and Limoges , with the fifth stage crossing the elevated region of Massif Central to the finish at the Le Lioran mountain resort.

Stage six headed to Montauban before the entrance to the Pyrenees in stage seven. This mountain range also hosted two further stages: The following three stages, 10 to 12, crossed the south of the country eastwards to Mont Ventoux.

Stage 16 ended with a finish in Bern , Switzerland. The second rest day took place in Bern after stage Alberto Contador crashed and lost 55 seconds.

Jasper Stuyven of Trek—Segafredo led the mountains classification. General classification rivals Contador and Richie Porte both lost time.

He took the lead of the general classification by over five minutes. Van Avermaet came fifth and extended his lead.

Thibaut Pinot took the lead of the mountains classification. Sagan, who came second, took the lead in the points classification.

They opened up a lead of over twenty seconds and held it to six seconds at the finish, where Sagan beat Froome in a sprint.

In the chasing group of overall favourites, a leading group of Porte, Froome and Bauke Mollema Trek—Segafredo crashed into the back of a camera motorbike that was stopped by the encroaching spectators.

The race jury gave Froome and Porte the same time as Mollema, who had got back on his bike with no issues. De Gendt took the lead of the mountains classification.

Romain Bardet attacked after a series of crashes that included Froome and Mollema. Sagan won the points classification with a total of , ahead of Greipel in second.

Majka won the mountains classification with De Gendt and Pantano second and third respectively. The best young rider was Yates, two minutes and sixteen seconds ahead of second-placed Louis Meintjes Lampre—Merida.

Movistar Team finished as the winners of the team classification , over eight minutes ahead of second-placed Team Sky. There were four main individual classifications contested in the Tour de France, as well as a team competition.

The first three riders got 10, 6 and 4 seconds, respectively. The second classification was the points classification.

Riders received points for finishing among the highest placed in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints during the stage.

The third classification was the mountains classification. Points were awarded to the riders that reached the summit of the most difficult climbs first.

The final individual classification was the young rider classification. This was calculated the same way as the general classification, but the classification was restricted to riders who were born on or after 1 January The final classification was a team classification.

This was calculated using the finishing times of the best three riders per team on each stage; the leading team was the team with the lowest cumulative time.

The number of stage victories and placings per team determined the outcome of a tie. In addition, there was a combativity award given after each stage to the rider considered, by a jury, to have "made the greatest effort and who demonstrated the best qualities of sportsmanship".

All finishers of the race were awarded with money. The race was the eighteenth of the twenty-eight events in the UCI World Tour , [72] with riders from the WorldTeams competing individually for points that contributed towards the rankings.

Peter Sagan held the lead of both rankings. With two riders in the top ten Spain remained the leaders of the nations ranking.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For a more comprehensive list, see List of teams and cyclists in the Tour de France.

In stage two, Marcel Kittel , who was second in the points classification, wore the green jersey, because first placed Mark Cavendish wore the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification.

Cycling portal France portal. Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 15 October Road Races page article 2.